Diabetes Types

Diabetes Types

Chi Cruz, MD

What is the difference?


Type 1 diabetes mellitus


Type 2 diabetes mellitus

T1 is characterized by little or no insulin produced by the body, a condition called insulin deficiency.


The difference is mainly on the ability to produce insulin at onset.

T2 is characterized mostly by the inability of insulin to work well, a condition called insulin resistance.
T1 is usually caused by a reaction that makes the body’s immune system attack the cells that produce insulin.


Both can be hereditary

T2 is more often caused by conditions that make insulin less effective, such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle
T1 is treated with insulin


Medications are aimed to control blood sugar.

There is no permanent cure yet.

T2 is treated with oral medications and other injectables, including insulin.

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can cause complications in the eyes, nerves, kidneys, heart and blood vessels.


Gestational diabetes is diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy.

It resolves after childbirth, but it increases the mother’s risk of having T2 diabetes.

Other conditions are called secondary diabetes. These are due to diseases or medications that affect hormones that control blood sugar and may also cause diabetes

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What is PCEDM?

The PCEDM is a sub-specialty society of the Philippine College of Physicians, a founding member of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, and a member of the International Society of Endocrinology.

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